1 - Those who tried to form the definition of art, they suppose what is essential for every clear matter about different subjects, is this: we can make our Subject words definable; other wise we truly don’t know about what we are struggling one of the most famous theory makers, Clive bell, say in his book, named “art”: our goal from the works of art is a collection of those which they have same common and special quality. Otherwise, when we use the expression of work of art “we say a meaningless word. So we must find out the innate quality that makes a work of art apart from the other ones.
2 - Forming of any definition about the art, should be down with care about the art historical evolutions, and each one must pay attention to reactions examples of word “art” in various history periods.
According to “Tatarkiewicz”, historian of art, the art is a continuously collection of concepts in which its past records goes to ancient times. Although this is true that we can extend it to most of other concepts that they have changed and have evolved in the passage of time, but special superiority of art concept is in its imaginations, against to each other sometimes, not only about what the art is, but about “every what the art should be it is performed to special approaches.
3 - One of considerable notes about the art definition. Every definition is relied to a theory about art, and in fact, every article definition expresses a special point of view of art. For example: the oldest definition of art is based on theory of imitation of nature which it tells the art is an imitation from nature, the people do that. This definition is based on Plato and Aristotle approach to art that starts the philosophical thoughts about works of art the recently philosophers have named this theory to representation theory and they have told each work of art reflexes subject of nature, content both animate or inanimate. For example painters reflex the views of mountains, seas, rivers, clouds, month, sun, or persons and horses’ views and… in their works. In the other way, they repeat their presentation in pictures. In this way, a writer reflexes in his book, the nature facts, persons environment, mutual relations, and their sadness, happiness and sentiments. According to this theory the value of each work of art depends to fineness, precision and exactness which are relaxed by its artist. Strength and weakness of this theory and its on different fields of art. Particularly on music has been prepared the struggles and conflicts that allocate a main part of works a bout the philosophy of art.
4 - Relied on theory of Croce and Collingwood theory the other definition indicates the art, so sensitive and emotional express. This theory that is called “expression theory of art” has brought up in beginning of 20th century, and it defines the art as a human clear express of emotions by various artistic media. It tells when an is a sentimental one he/she tries to find out the depth of his/her interior and to have a clear image of his/her own sentiments.Soon after he/she decides to make them clear by word formation, color, sound and every other artistic media in the other hand, the art creation is an inner detection and self biography that is shown as a work of art. Collingwood says: the true art creation includes sense of emotion and showing it so that it can create the same aesthetical sense in visitors or listeners. Tolstoy-the well-known Russian writer- agrees with the expression theory fans and in his book “what is the art” he tells the art is expanding the emotions and senses. The artist had shown his/her experienced to his/her viewers or listener.
5 - “You should find the substance of art in itself” Formalism says. Formalism is another theory that is a base to a new definition from art.
Most of critics about art have emphasized on importance of from and have zoom on quality of works of art. Although the affair of from and meaning, was the main affair of philosophy since the Plato, in the second half of 19th century and the first half of 20th century. Emphasis on from proposed as an important theory. Edward Hanslick, the author of “musical fines” and both Clive bell and Roger fry-two professional critics of visual arts are the main founding members of this theory. It could be told these three theory “representation, expression and formalism” are significant theories in are philosophy .
6 - some of writers and thinkers deny the importance of any type of definition about the art and show it as a worthless thing and they believe the attempts to find a complete definition from art not only is futile, but more than it even is problem to clear understanding. It is told some words in its evolution sightseeing, have a such meaning, that no body can give us a definition, commonly. One of those who has no belief in definition, is Ludwig Wittgenstein (Austrian-English philosophy) in his book philosophical researches, which published after his death in 1952 meantime extending his new philosophical approach, he presents a modern philosophy in linguistics and challenge the necessity of any case of definition for a language words he reasoned that words application do not need any definition depend on enough and requisite conditions, and told words can without any type of definition, do their semantic roles. Wittgenstein theory can appoint to word “the art”, well.
one of other 20th important and debatable theories that is base of any definition about art is institutional theory by Arthur Danto and George Dickey. This theory is so expanded and locate in itself all common definitions of art and all schools includes all and new schools such as Barroco, Classicism, romanticism, realism, surrealism, cubism, Dadaism and … .
So, the definition of art is so complex and argument making for philosophy of art.