The bounds between the industrial designing and handicrafts.
The art activity is an effort that the human is approaching to beauty by means of it. In all of the human cultures some forms of the art inclination or aesthetics, the work or handicrafts can be found. Of course it doesn’t mean that all of the cultures can be compared as the same and even it is possible that there are the evident differences between the arts inside a unique culture.
The arts according to their uses affect the mind of man. The more the thing is applied the longer it is used, more effect it has and the more faculty it is; it will recorded in the mind of human being so a thing which has the lower application will have lower effect to the mind. There is a relative relationship between the man and the things around him; that is the man according to his needs and conditions modernizes the world around him and changes the manner of life on the bases of the modern things. In fact the man with z his targets with his side surrounding at the same time agreement with a conditions that the surrounding put on the face him the surrounding get significant. In other words the round things of human in comparison with their Form and proceeds is affecting to human and surrounding himself and every thing with the new design have the separate effect and become mean with this. The man put an end to the physical, sympathetic social needs himself in connection with his round things and basis to their needs and wanted to take action to make and change the products. Professor Lobakh exclaimed: the using industrial products are adapted to the consumer’s material and psychical needs. These industrial products may be towards man’s calmness and rest.
An industrial product is associated with the designer’s thinking towards the form and aesthetic, the suitable proceeds and the methods of built and the economical product and the environment factors.
Generally the principle of industrial design in the new form is known from beginning of the industrial revolution. But if look a little to at the back can know as the same time its roots with separate the design from the built (make) process that were before of the industrial revolution. In the middle Ages the first capitalism industrial organization created on basis of the product in the traditional ways that the first of industrial design activities in this time were be for benefits of the court, church and merchants. 1
In the 16 th century in Italy and Germany the activities is performed in order to the new products and consumer in result of it printed the pattern books that included the gravure picture and designs for the weaving industries and make shelves industry.
The most designer and craftsmen in this period worked towards their commercial targets that produce the cheap things for the common people and produce the expensive things for the special consumers. Their politics was basis on the commercial needs and national bazaars and therefore their abundant production concentrated to the day fashion things and they seek profit from the significant designers of course this producing is made on the base of needs and interest of bazaars and it was trying that is used from the classic pattern and the plain lines that in that time have many adherents.
With growth of trade and development of the commerce situation the competition between the producing units newly invented in product and the need of society is caused progress in the industrial design. so adjust to idea of Karl Heinrich Marx(1818-1883) increase of the demand of bazaar, discover of America, the exchange of colonized, increase of the exchange of means and goods in generally, the development of commercial and etc. is caused the develop of industries and as the same proportion that develop the industries , commercial and etc. until there isn’t other place for handicrafts and the small handicrafts manufactories are changed to the industrial manufactories and the steam apparatus and machine in the industry products replaced the handicrafts products .
The development of industry revolution, the distance between design and produce become extremity and the designers haven’t away for the industry. The industries acted in the case of more various and more specialty and their principal aim was commercial of products. With growth of the commercial products, the products with the simple ways is made in the form of the value things that moreover the industrial products were free any kind of gracefulness and art or in cases is caused the inexpert use of decorations and ignored the useful of products and machine had destroyed the taste in the industrial products.
The critics such as John Ruskin (1819-1900) and William Morris (1834-1896) after become industrial opposed to this way. They condemned their industry and products by reason of sacrificed the human values. Morris took effort at revived the handicrafts in machine period and were disproving the bound between the decoration arts and structural. His aim changed the artists to craftsmen and the craftsmen to artists. Morris believed that the noble art arising of the human enjoy and feeling and based on his belief the cheapness art and handicrafts isn’t fair that cause to descend only the value of art work and artist.
The movement created against the wave of development to be made industrial as named “Art Nouveau“which is included the fields in the decorations, in the decorations, internal décor, furniture, handicrafts, the cloth print and dyeing. The full kinds and twists vegetable figures organized its principal pain tinges (the plane of iron net work entrance of subway station of Paris by Ecter Ghimar), the similar figures is used yet in the ornamenting book, the applied arts such as glass equipments and vessels. This decoration style can result in the short time to mixture of art and industry in produce things and applied apparatus and the handicrafts.
The industrial design associates from the science and art which everyone has the firmness place in the industrial design and with the omission of each one won’t conclude the final aim or it will be merely the industrial or merely art. Also it is compound of the simple design and ideas but it is deep that will in stage of perform that is with use of the design and ideas that have root in tradition, can modern and change to a choosing public art proportionate with want of bazaar and aside of the other factors of the industrial products is altered and then is entered to the bazaar field as a applied thing.
In definition of the industrial design can say that: the method of the quality and quantity specialties of goods is considered to produce to the industrial ways. For achieve to the desired status of goods for the sake of the proceeds, form, taste, fashion and expenses. Also it is paying to the commercial, trade services and ecological1 and the cultural factors.
The industrial design for create facility such as the extent and full domain works afford a basis research of anthropology, the material growth and the general thinking of systems.
One of the targets of the industrial design may be tow-sided connection between the industrial designer and the producer companies that this connection has been created to protect of investigator in originate the recognizing region; culture and technology in side altogether for the advantage of consumer, society and environment.
The handicrafts and art were synonymous in the past and for this reason the life of people was inserted with the art and therefore can observe the footprint of each one in that one, because the remaining effects in any case possesses a skill fullness thinking is made by the skilled hands and craftsman and in its any unit has became manifest the craftsman’s the art enjoyment and the thinking creativity and this difference manner maybe between the machine artificial and factory with handicrafts.
The creativity and thinking in the machine artificial is using in the first of a productive thing and when the product achieve to the abundant degree may be in case of repeating and be without no prosperous of the repeated creativity and even if it may be felt that the thing needs to change the machine will not be any ability towards invention and change. A goods that produce in the abundant form and distribute in the extent mass is produced for all people who in order to acquire care of addresser should set a target the sensitiveness and intelligence from lowest till highest of the taste level.
Valter Benjamin (1892-1940) exclaimed that the rapid and abundant produce of art works has changed the art nature and has abolished its surrounding halo with to clean two qualities of “unity” and “not available” from it.
The handicrafts is taken in to account as the independent and native industry in part of the most significant the applied arts that has the deep and stability root in culture and indicated to the activities which mainly perform with hand and by using of the simple and common tools not by machine and also everything is made with elegance and decorations can be among the handicrafts as like table, chair etc.
Nowadays the handicrafts is the decoration art in the common belief of people and they think it produce in manner of traditional while the handicrafts is a semi-traditional work and today it is used also in the hand products from an industrial tools or apparatus and machine for the purpose of facility of work. The point is important that the artworks is made in the form of handmade and with the artist creativity can remove also a part of daily needs aside that it is the decoration face. Also a goods is usable that may be the harmonious with the produce material and method and be able to trade.
The goods that are produced in the area of handicrafts had been principally in the form of little produce and as the machine products are made in the case of abundant for offering to bazaar.
Of course for many years the handicrafts is converted to the form of repeated work and changed only to a skill and art there for it is better that is performed a field to develop the creative part in the handicrafts and isn’t changed to repeated, its requisite is a condition that has been possessed a special idea in its background. For an example if is performed the condition which the handicrafts aside the industrial products carry out towards the produce by using of the new technology and achieve to development and invention also it can remained as a art and isn’t converted to a repeated numerous product without of the creativity (In opposition with the abundant produce along with the creativity and invention) because the numerous produce can be caused to the omission of handicrafts and its art place in the machine industry.
Carroll Noel (1947- ) believes that since the abundant art frames are from the traditional art frames generative, they have true that accept the art for them selves.
The produce method in the handicrafts and industrial design has been yet differences aside the shared ways. This difference is regarded in valuing and introducing and offering of goods. In the handicrafts products settle the, ancient pictures, thinking creativity, elegance, taste change native values (skill man may deem necessary a change at the time of making or weaving of thing and do it) and is offering with higher price and even it is possible that isn’t entranced to bazaar and other words the industrial design is a background for the purpose of the numerous products with a creativity idea. Sometimes with relying to the past pictures, without of the hand touch and cheaper price with the special situation that say new remark and needs the other view.
Principally in the handicrafts products have the special place the mentioned instances as an example a carpet that is weaved by the tribes is included the native values and the special ancient pictures it self respect to a carpet that produces abundant in bazaar. The tribes never lose the native values and the ancients pictures them selves whatever they use them as the symbolic form but even they have always changed and applied with regard to taste and creativity them selves when they produce them.
In the industrial products the mentioned instance is the same which has formed in make of the first goods and isn’t performed a change in make of other kind of products and every number of goods is prospered one of kind of the thinking, creativity, elegance and taste. The ancient pictures have the particular situation in the industrial products and the pictures is exposed to change with respect to the taste the bazaar needs and trade and the economical system and politics to the extent that would organize the base and foundation in the some of the industrial designs and ancient pictures but perfectly they would change in the form of new design and pictures due to the needs.
In Theodor Adorno (1903-1969) opinion in the numerous produce the target isn’t thing except support of the economical system bases and social facts while the reality art may be after generating to the kind of the foundation knowledge and free from obligation and bond.
The quality certainly has be improving the produce and is increased the requisite bazaar. If the early design also included the creativity and other factors form this kind, when in the case of design is converted for the numerous product, considered the conditions of the numerous product in form of the high products and the low price and would cover the bazaar. But particularly in handicrafts increase of quality would decrease the product creativity a thing and raise its price.
The condition that in the present state cause to continue the handicrafts in the people life affairs, they are roots that has remained in that from the past that is to say the hand made products after using would apply as a decoration thing even when they achieve to in applied produce while the machine products have been important for the purpose of their applied in the people life. If we will compare the industrial products with handmade in the most cases the machine goods and products prefer to the handmade products from a viewpoint of apply and durability and they are requisite of life because many of the consumer goods require the abundant produce and considering economic the handmade products isn’t economical but in many of the other instances isn’t comparable with one art thing.
From view of John Ruskin the machine product hasn’t any situation in aesthetic. So in opinion of Marx whenever the worker gas away from work as like the enjoyment source, the work would lose its aesthetic face and else it can’t have the target inside it self.
The preference of handicrafts from of case of its traditional respect with the applied use and also the decoration use are whatever the special and minimum from that made with the hands of artist. Other hand in the machine goods used the lower decoration and or the more wresting from but in any case there are decorations in the machine products even if it is to figure of a simple line.
The deficiency of the learner designer and unskilled use from the decorations cause to create a gap between the style and out put which individuals as like John Ruskin saw the defects of industry ago and the dangers arising from it for the human societies but they offered the solutions that hadn’t in the practical way, Because in any case the human societies may be the necessitous of industrial products and for produce numerous of a thing that regarding with need present with the cheaper price in comparison with one product of handmade.
In his opinion the craftsmen are the great class of humans that is using as only the foolish skillful force to make and we should arrange them on the basis the intelligence, shrewdness and at least on the basis of their abilities that they have this possibility that they grow up and is exalted in that surface. For the purpose create this condition in the machine products we can be had the industry and art beside together and we decrease the distance between them. It is better the artist would advance towards become industry in produce not in offering and the workman (the repeated skillful force and not the industrial designer) is converted to a artist till there are the creativity, enjoyment and expertness skill and aesthetic aspects in produce a goods in the from of hand make or mechanical, Whatever a thing would submit in phase of abundant products.
The mention of this point is considerable that generally one bazaar to the proportional phase with kind of goods and consume while the manner of offering one produced goods as the handicrafts in bazaar are undesired that would decrease the value of a produced thing with hand.
John Ruskin: the hand make art has the human position and the creator perform a divinity work and change it to the repeated machine that else thing is very sorrow.
1. Gaut, Berys / the Rutledge Companion to Aesthetics/ 2001
2. Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels /The Communist Manifesto/1992