The analysis of a malek mohammad ghazvinis' a painting-calligraphy work whit a semotic and relgious attitude"
The pen that put in humankind s' hand
and used for writing is animmediate
symbol of "divine pen" the trace thast
this pen puts on paper on skin is a
picture of that "divine calligraphy "
that has writen the pure fact of all
on this base ,reflects his heavenly
Dr.sayyed hosain nasr
Malekmohammad ghazvini who was a calligraphy of ghajar era has some works of "nastaligh" calligraphy and painting-calligraphy are few,his creativity and attitude to calligraphy is distintinct.his attitudre to calligraphy released him of the shackles of dominant rulles on calligraphy ,the rules that his contemporaries had practiced on "chalipa" and calligraphy for esccessive years. After he had apprenticed this scool and by fidelity to tradition and the nature of nasta'ligh" and solth" calligraphy ,he reached to a degree of awareness and vision that he decided not to remain in forms anymore and it was the time that he should break the forms and create a new form .
Ghajarieh,malekmohammad ghazvini ,calligraphy,painting-calligraphy,alrahman(means"compossionate),alrahim(means:merciful),bird,leaf,crown,saffron,black.
Before analyzing malek mohammad works' , I should note two current attitudes to painting -colligraphy .the first attitude contains who have worked on calligraphy and been the student colligraphy masters .art a juncture they thought that they should mix theeircalligraphy with pigment and give new concepts.from this group of calligraphers,we can name malek mohammad ghazvini,reza mafi,mohammad ehsaee,dr.sedaghat jabari,nasrollah afjeh'ea,jalil rasoul.
another group contains the artists that the main basis of their works is painting but they use calligraphy for expressing aestheticts.from this group of calligraphers ,we can name mohammad ali khiyarchi(11th c.),esma'eal jalayer(13th c.), hasan zarin- ghalam tajosho'ara(14th c.),faramarz pil-aram,hosain zenderoodi.and etc.
malekmohammad ghazvini entered in the word of painting -calligraphy with his supply of calligraphy with his supply of calligraphy and created the works that are very distinct,beautiful and analyzable .the boundary between design and chirography in his work is not separable and if we divide the design from calligraphy or calligrapy from design ,the work will become faceless.
First we consider the colour of paper and chirography in his works and then analyze he used designs.
The papers that malek mohammad has pictured his painting -calligraphy works on them are the papers that have saffron colour ,but for siah-mashgh and nasta'ligh colligraphy ,light ivory papers are seen to.the saffron papers that malek mohammad ghazvini has writen religious and koranic items on the have an old tradition in our culture for embellishing books.
Many koran books in early islamic periods and following periods have writen in "kufi", mohaghegh and naskh styles on the papers with saffron background .some of these books are available in the collection of islamic art books that belongs to dr.naser khalili and many of them are kept in big calligraphy museums in iran.
This coulour with its deep symbols hidden In itself actuates humankind to the fact of light and brightnees.
The arange saffron colour is a warm on because it is a mixture of red and yelow colours and it looks to be a happy and dlive colour.the arange colour has signs of autumnal sceneries and fire flames in itself.the arange colour is the colour fortune . this colour releases our feelings and develops the feeling of respecting to ourselves .because of itsprovocative effect,it counters depression and and creats the sense of humor in our entities.the arange colour refers to warmth and energy of sun. the purer kinds of this colour reminds bravery and daring. In historical periods,this colour has had such a value and account that court letters were written on the papersthat mixed with rose water and saffron it has been used in gilding.
Saffron is the sign of a good luck and has much value and because of this,it has been used as dowry for iranian girls.so on the base of this view ,using orange colour in malek mohammads' works is thinkable,because the koranic verses and some parts of "ziarat e ashura" and the words "allah,mohammad,ali" have been writen by arange colour and have moral and valuable concepts.the use of this colour shows malek mohammad s' prefect respect and his faith to "pure imam" and religious thought.maybe to malekmohammad ,this coulor has been the divinest one that could be used for writing the name of god and "pure imams".
So,malek mohammad ,having a perfect awareness of characters and patinas of orangeand saffron colours,"pure imams"on the paper without any doubt and bravery is the distinction of this colour.another asset of orange colouris its hight ostenation and it glitters visually well and this is a good point that has been used by malek mohammad ghazvini.
The colour of ink that malek mohammad has used with an awareness of its facility and characters beautifully is black colour.the black colour is ideal for next colour and on the light background .it let us consider the details of design very carefully and nicely.other colours don’t have this character.the black colour gives us the ability of understanding obscures and writing letters and words on bright background.this mixture of black and saffron colours and using it on the orange backrround gives us a sense of endlessness,depht and breadth.
the first sign that we consider in this work is the leaf .a green leaf reminds spring and life.it is known as impermanence and sometimes unworthiness embodiment ,because it grows and falls every year.it is also the symbole of happyness,wisdom and growth and when we speak of many leaves,it means people ,because uncountable amount of leavs is an example of crowd.the leaves that malek mohammad uses for ornamenting and picturing his flowers ,root in "eslimi" and "alef"(sounds a) of nastaligh.although it is not a mere imitation of "eslimi",we can find its roots in "eslimi" leaves with on open impression of "alef" in "nastaligh" style.its looks that malek mohammad has considered the from of "alef " in 'nastaligh" style as a leaf and because others didn’t know this kind of view,he wanted to show that these "alef" - which are the embodiment of friend stature - and the leaves of flower have shined in gods names.so the "alefs" that he used in this wok with more overstatement and a spiral form have issued like leaves from inside .he has decorated "alef" by using the structure of "alef" and by no other design and description.we can say that malek mohammad ,not only saw the words as calligrapher but also as a painter .he has drawn the designs from inside the letters and has put them on the side of themselves and at last these leaves render the spals of a flower that "alef" settles as flower in them and the "alef" looks like a bird.from one point of view, the flower is a flower and from other one, it is a bird.the "alefs" and descendant "lams"(sounds l) have the from of a bird in this work.they look like phenix is the simbol and allegory of beauty,of beauty ,immortality and timeles life ,itshow visually that words like "alrahman" (means merciful) and "alrahim" (means compassionate) are essentially very beautiful, immortal and timeless.
Their practical forms and essentialnatures have hid in gods divine essence and permanent.
James hall in "an illustrative dictionary of symbols in east and west " says: "a bird is abroad symbol of soul,specially when it arises to sky after death."
The egyption bird romed "ba" that put over the mummy ,is the simbol of divinities power and pharaohs .many of ancient races considerd larger birds that accompanied by sun , sky and divinities.'yung" considers a bird as a soul or angel and metahysical aids. The birds is also the simbol of flying, the flight of thoughts and imageries.
In art literature , birrds are more excellents aspects of existence . in mythological allegories , the soul is a bird and we say : "the soul flew from the chest cage."
The phoenix is the simbol of soul , (rebirth).birds are the simbol of souls or angels, human encouraging supports, thoughts and flight and at last a bird is the symbol of mans soul in folklore in all through the world.
In this work ,there are four birds like phoenix that formed of two "alefs" in the words "allah" (means god) and "alrahim". Although the movement of the whole composition tends to left , these birds move to right and the phoenixs movements recalls yungs opinion well that he said, "a birds is the symbol of flying of thoughts and imageries and so there are more excellent thoughts and aspects in this work that pictured throught some signs.
Continuing to identify the signs used in this work,first we dead with the meaning of the word 'alrahman' because of the designed sign on t and then deal whit comparative comparison between the meaning of"alrahman"and the sign.
When " allameh tabatbaee" interprets the words "alrahman " and "alrahim"in the term" بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم "(means:in the name of god the compassionate merciful) he says ,"the word "alrahman is a voice of exaggeration that denotes wide mercy and the word "rahim" (weighs fa'eel) is an adjective that expresses stability and permance.
So , "alrahman" means that gods mercy is overmuch and "alrahim"means that gods' mercy is perpetual . they have been used with these meanings in many cases in koran as says ,"الرحمن علی العرش استوی "(means Gods general mercy has been given to the heavens and all creatures.)
"alrahman is general and encompasses pious souls and pagons. Malek mohammad ghazvini who knew the meaning of the word"alrahman " well,pictured a crown on it to show that it is the simbol of throne,power and kingship for all the word,the kingship that that contains all the heavens.
James hall for the meaning of "crown is the simbol of thronce ,power,victory,and reaching to glories. Jesus didn’t made by prickles is the symbol of grief.virgin mary is the queen of sky when she has a crown on her head. Jesus put a diadem on the head of holy catherine who was from messina and and introduced her as his symbolic birde.the moses put his feet on pharaohs crown as future victory sign when he was a child.because crown is simbol of totalkingship and this kingship and throne is suitable foer atotal power that contains all cretures and humankind ,it settles on this word.but the word"alrahim"is reserved for the fold aroyal crown is not used for this limited groups .so total divinity that contains gods excellences , settles in the word. "alrahman" and this word is shown with this sign. And maybe on the basis of malek mohammad ghazvini s thought ,recalling one s god and bathing in gods mercy is the greatest kingship .
Among other sign in this work ,it is remarkable the free spiral lines that delineated in different spaces of the page. These free lines shine in all the works of malek mohammad . at first these lines help to eyes movement in all through the page and creat a kind of balance and then help much more to creat a movement that is the prominent character of this work and activate more the whole aggregation.
in this work and in the term" "بسم الله الرحمن الرحیمthe path of birds movement "alef' and "lam") are exactly coextensive with the path of spiral movement and these movement help much to observer visually thus direct eyes from the bakground of the page to above side and recall us rise and top.
It is interesting to know although malek mohammad makes structures very carefully and delicately by the wild nib of calligraphy pen , when he enters inside the page,draws freely spiral lines without thinking to the work if it may be damaged or he doesn’t take any care that he was painting a leaf and a flower concentratively some moments ago.it can be said that maybe the last step of this work in drawing the spiral lines that direct us not to freeze in our thoughts because it is useless and free movement and to be freed from the burden of dependence are redemptive.
"the trees that have dependence are nder he burden plaudit on cedar that is free from the burden of grief." Another sign that should be considered is stripplled lines that drawn around the term" "بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم. Elone arabi says in his book named "fotouhat" that the word was creted with" "بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم".malek mohammad shines this word b whole the term recpectfully by a deep view to the meanings and values of "alrahman" and 'alrahim" and whit a belief to the "grand name ".it looks that he has cut this ter from another word that is separate from the world of pelf and brought it to our secular world and put it on the page .this stripple intensifies the unworldly identity of this term.there are other small birds with a shape of (v) that drawn among the free spiral lines and these birds are examples of the whole birds that are flying in all through the page and malek mohammad with these simple signs but delicate,pictures a world that looks like the seventh heaven ,a world that is full of movement and life.another item that helps to cohere whole the work is dot I the term " "بسم الله الرحمن الرحیم ".these dots. Have choosen by a complete awareness of circle.if we note to whole the work,the around spase of the work is further than line and this wide spase helps to the movement and agency of the work.
Malek mohammad with an awareness of these intensifying items as circle in lines ,movements ,the "eslimi" movement of leaves and composition ,bewares of using square dots and chooses circular dots to intensify the movement and agency on the page.and maybe by using square dots the greatest damage could be striken to this work.
All signs that we spoke about them ,are reminders of the other noble world that had filled all of mentality and imagiination of the artist and he by working on these heavenly sign,has located himself in that position .although he pictres a valuable aim for himself ,he draws humbly his signature o most of his works as valueless and worthless.in the work ( السلام علیک یا ابا عبدالله) means peace be on "aba abdollah"), malek mohammad put his signature inside the word (السلام ) as this belief had settled in his heart or in the work ( الله محمد علی ) (means god,mohammad,ali), drew his signature under the word "علی" by his "khafi" calligraphy pen to this way : العبد المذنب الفقیر الحقفیر المسکین المستکین malek mohammad is valueless and worthless and on abject man.
In this work malek mohammad pawns a part of his entity to if he didn’t, his works would not be permanen.
In fact, whole of the works and artistic masterpieces that have been created through history are not exception able from this rule .in this work malek mohammad ghazvini spreads himself on the field of colourful page heartily and with all religious creed and perfect regards to god and saw freedom in this kind of being.
"The sun of wine rose from the east wineglass the day that whell builds potteries from our mud alarm,fill our brainpans with wine." Hafez
1. allameh sayyed mohammad hosain tabatabaee,"tafsir e almizan" , taken from the site: www,andisheqom.com
2. edward lousi ,esmith(1381), a dictionary of the of artistic term, farhad goshayesh,tehran:efaf,second press.
3. james hall .(1380) , an illustrative dictionary of symbols in east and west , roghayeh behzad , tehran: farhang moa'ser , first press.